Given any sequence of n distinct objects, in how many ways can those objects be rearranged so that none of the objects is in its original position? This is known as the number of "derangements" of n, denoted by D(n). Obviously D(1)=0 and D(2)=1. One way (not the most efficient) of determining the value of D(n) for any given n is by means of the inclusion/exclusion principle. For example, with n=5 we begin with 5! possible re-arrangements, but of those we know that 4! leave the first object unmoved, and 4! leave the 2nd object unmoved, and so on. Thus there are 5*4! that leave one specific object unmoved, so we have to subtract this number. However, in doing so we have subtracted some of the arrangements twice, because some of them leave both the 1st AND the 2nd element unchanged (for example). So we need to add back the number of arrangements that leave any two of the objects unmoved, of which there are C(5,2)*3!. But then we need to subtract the number of arrangements that leave THREE objects unmoved, and so on. The final result is D(5) = 1*5! - 5*4! + 10*3! - 10*2! + 5*1! - 1*0! = 44 In general we have n j / n \ D(n) = SUM (-1) ( ) (n-j)! j=0 \ j / If we examine the effect of multiplying each term of this sum by n+1, we see that the value of D(n) can easily be computed from the value of D(n-1) by the simple recurrence formula D(n) = n D(n-1) + (-1)^n The first several values of D(n) for n=1,2,3,... are 0, 1, 2, 9, 44, 265, 1854, 14833, ... The Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (Sloane & Plouffe) lists the values up to D(17), and also notes the exponential generating function 1 inf x^n --------- = SUM D(n) --- (1-x) e^x n=0 n! Now suppose that, instead of being given just a single arrangement of objects, we specify TWO arrangements (not necessarily distinct), and consider the number of permutations that have no object in the same position as it occupies in EITHER of the two given arrangements. In this case the number clearly depends on the relation between the two given arrangements. If they are the same, then the number of derangements is simply D(n), just as before. On the other hand, if the two given arrangements are some non-trivial permutation of each other, the number of derangements relative to both of them is less. The permutation represented by going from the 1st given arrangement to the 2nd can be expressed in terms of its cyclic components. For example, with n=5 objects there are seven possible cyclic structures, corresponding to the seven partitions of 5. The identity permutation consists of five cycles of length 1, denoted by [1][1][1][1][1], and in this case there are D(5)=44 derangements relative to any pair of arrangements that are related by the identity permutation. Also, note that for any given 1st arrangement there is only one 2nd arrangement that is related in this way. On the other hand, for any given 1st arrangement there are 10 distinct 2nd arrangements related to it according to a permutation with the cyclic structure [1][1][1][2], and in these cases there are only 24 derangements relative to both of the given arrangements. The complete list of possibilities for derangements relative to TWO given arrangements of n objects for n=3,4,5 and 6 are listed below: n=3: Number of Number of Relation between distinct 2nd derangements the two given arrangements relative to arrangements for any given both given 1st arrangement arrangements Product --------------- ------------ ------- [1][1][1] 1 2 2 [1][2] 2 1 2 [3] 3 0 0 ---- 4 = 2^2 n=4: # of # of two-fold pairs derangements product ------ ------------ ------- [1][1][1][1] 1 9 9 [1][1][2] 6 4 24 [2][2] 3 4 12 [1][3] 8 3 24 [4] 6 2 12 ---- 81 = 9^2 n=5 # of # of two-fold pairs derangements product ---------- ------------- ---------- [1][1][1][1][1] 1 44 44 [1][1][1][2] 10 24 240 [1][1][3] 20 19 380 [1][2][2] 15 16 240 [1][4] 30 16 480 [2][3] 20 12 240 [5] 24 13 312 ------ Total 1936 = 44^2 n=6: # of # of two-fold pairs derangements product ------ ------------ ------- [1][1][1][1][1][1] 1 265 265 [1][1][1][1][2] 15 168 2520 [1][1][2][2] 45 116 5220 [1][1][1][3] 40 137 5480 [2][2][2] 15 80 1200 [1][2][3] 120 96 11520 [1][1][4] 90 114 10260 [3][3] 40 82 3280 [2][4] 90 80 7200 [1][5] 144 95 13680 [6] 120 80 9600 ----- 70225 = 265^2 Of course the numbers in the second column are just the multinomial coefficients related to the corresponding partition. (These are called M_2 in Abramowitz and Stegun.) Notice that the sum of the "products" in each table is the square of D(n). This sum represents the number of all possible two-fold derangements, with no restriction on the relation between the two "given" arrangements. Therefore, up to permutation of the identities of the n objects, we can fix the "derangement" X, and then construct any two "prior" arrangements, which are only required to be derangements of X. Each has a choice of D(n) arrangements, so the number of possible combinations of two "priors" is D(n)^2. So, if Q(n,j) denotes the number of two-fold derangements of n objects relative to TWO given arrangements whose cyclic structure corresponds to the jth partition of n, then we have the identity SUM M_2(j) Q(n,j) = D(n)^2 j To summarize, the basic definition of an ordinary derangement can be expressed in terms of constructs of the form / p1[1,2,..,n] \ \ de[1,2,..,n/p1] / where p1[1,2,..,n] signifies an arbitrary arrangement of the numbers 1 through n and de[1,2,..,n/p1] signifies a derangement relative to p1, and there are essentially D(n) distinct constructs of this kind (up to permutation of the elements, i.e., we can always label the objects so that p1 is the identity permutation). In addition, we've seen that if we define "two-fold derangements" as constructs of the form / p1[1,2,..,n] \ | p2[1,2,..,n] | \ de[1,2,..,n/p1,p2] / where p1 and p2 are arbitrary arrangements and de[1,2,..,n/p1,p2] is a derangement relative to both p1 and p2, we find the number of distinct such constructs (up to labelling of the objects) is D(n)^2. Obviously this generalize to higher orders. For example, if we consider THREE-fold derangements of n objects relative to three given arrangements, represented by constructs of the form / p1[1,2,..,n] \ | p2[1,2,..,n] | | p3[1,2,..,n] | \ de[1,2,..,n/p1,p2,p3] / the total number of distinct constructs of this kind equals D(n)^3. We can also consider constructs consisting of k>2 strings that are pairwise derangements of each other. There is only one set of 3 pairwise derangements of 3 objects: {0 1 2} {1 2 0} {2 0 1} but there are 12 distinct sets of 3 pairwise derangements of 4 objects, and 276 of 5 objects, and 10640 of 6 obbjects. Another useful generalization is to regard ordinary derangements as pairs of strings with the condition that the permutation from one to the other contains no cycles of length 1 (i.e., fixed values), and then to consider "2nd order derangements" as pairs of strings such that the permutation from one to the other contains no cycles of length 1 OR 2. Likewise for higher order. For n=5 or 6 objects we have the following numbers of derangements of two strings: order n=5 n=6 ----- --- --- 1 44 265 2 24 160 3 24 120 4 24 120 5 0 120 6 0 0 These numbers clearly reflect the possible partitions of n into cyclic structure.

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